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turd monsoon 2: low-pressure buildup
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random wikipedia article

Postby turd monsoon 2: low-pressure buildup » 24 Jun 2018, 22:12

Harry Robshaw
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Harry Robshaw Personal information
Full name Henry William Robshaw
Date of birth 10 May 1927
Place of birth Edmonton, England
Date of death 1990
Playing position Wing half
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
1948–1953 Tottenham Hotspur 1 (0)
1953 Reading 20 (1)
? Tonbridge ? (?)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only

Henry William "Harry" Robshaw (10 May 1927 – 1990) was an English professional footballer who played for Tottenham Hotspur, Reading and Tonbridge.[1]
Playing career

Robshaw joined Tottenham Hotspur in November 1948 as a junior. The wing half played one senior match [2] for the "Lilies" in a fixture against Liverpool on 1 December 1951.[3] He signed for Reading in February 1953 and scored once in 20 matches. Robshaw went on to have a spell at Tonbridge.
References

Hugman, BJ (Ed) The PFA Premier & Football League Players' Records 1946-2005 (2005) ISBN 1-85291-665-6 p530. Retrieved 28 June 2010
Tottenham Hotspur F.C A-Z of players Retrieved 3 December 2012 Archived 3 June 2009 at WebCite

Robshaw's debut Retrieved 28 June 2010

External links

Spurs 1949-50 team photo
Harry Robshaw at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database

Categories:

1927 births1990 deathsPeople from Edmonton, LondonEnglish footballersAssociation football wing halvesTottenham Hotspur F.C. playersReading F.C. playersTonbridge Angels F.C. playersEnglish Football League players

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Robshaw

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shadowalk
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Re: random wikipedia article

Postby shadowalk » 25 Jun 2018, 23:06

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turd monsoon 2: low-pressure buildup
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Re: random wikipedia article

Postby turd monsoon 2: low-pressure buildup » 05 Jul 2018, 17:12

Cave bear
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Ursidae
Genus: Ursus
Species: U. spelaeus
Binomial name
Ursus spelaeus
Rosenmüller, 1794
Ursus spelaeus, Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) was a species of bear that lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene and became extinct about 24,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum.

Both the word "cave" and the scientific name spelaeus are used because fossils of this species were mostly found in caves. This reflects the views of experts that cave bears may have spent more time in caves than the brown bear, which uses caves only for hibernation.

Contents

1 Taxonomy
1.1 Evolution
2 Description
3 Behaviour
3.1 Dietary habits
3.2 Mortality
3.2.1 Recovery of fossil DNA
4 Range and habitat
5 Extinction
6 Relationship with humans
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

Taxonomy

Cave bear skeletons were first described in 1774 by Johann Friederich Esper in his book Newly Discovered Zoolites of Unknown Four Footed Animals. While scientists at the time considered that the skeletons could belong to apes, canids, felids, or even dragons or unicorns, Esper postulated that they actually belonged to polar bears. Twenty years later, Johann Christian Rosenmüller, an anatomist at the Leipzig University, gave the species its binomial name. The bones were so numerous that most researchers had little regard for them. During World War I, with the scarcity of phosphate dung, earth from the caves where cave bear bones occurred were used as a source of phosphates. When the "dragon caves" in Austria's Steiermark region were exploited for this purpose, only the skulls and leg bones were kept.[1]

Many caves in Central Europe have skeletons of cave bears inside, for example the Heinrichshöhle in Hemer, the Dechenhöhle in Iserlohn, Germany. A complete skeleton, five complete skulls, and 18 other bones were found inside Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia (en.Bear cave) in 1966 in Poland.[2] In Romania, in a cave called Bears' Cave, 140 cave bear skeletons were discovered in 1983.[3]
Evolution

Both the cave bear and the brown bear are thought to be descended from the Plio-Pleistocene Etruscan bear (Ursus etruscus)[4][5][6] that lived about 5.3 Mya to 100,000 years ago. The last common ancestor of cave bears and brown bears lived between 1.2–1.4 Mya.[7] The immediate precursor of the cave bear was probably Ursus deningeri (Deninger's bear), a species restricted to Pleistocene Europe about 1.8 Mya to 100,000 years ago.[8][9] The transition between Deninger's bear and the cave bear is given as the last interglacial, although the boundary between these forms is arbitrary, and intermediate or transitional taxa have been proposed, e.g. Ursus spelaeus deningeroides,[10] while other authorities consider both taxa to be chronological variants of the same species.[11]

Cave bears found in different regions vary in age, thus facilitating investigations into evolutionary trends. The three anterior premolars were gradually reduced, then disappeared, possibly in response to a largely vegetarian diet. In a fourth of the skulls found in the Conturines, the third premolar is still present, while more derived specimens elsewhere lack it. The last remaining premolar became conjugated with the true molars, enlarging the crown and granting it more cusps and cutting borders. This phenomenon, called molarization, improved the mastication capacities of the molars, facilitating the processing of tough vegetation. This allowed the cave bear to gain more energy for hibernation, while eating less than its ancestors.[12]
Ice age cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) from 150,000 BCE
Description
Life restoration.

The cave bear had a very broad, domed skull with a steep forehead. Its stout body had long thighs, massive shins and in-turning feet, making it similar in skeletal structure to the brown bear.[13] Cave bears were comparable in size to the largest modern-day bears. The average weight for males was 350 to 600 kg (770 to 1,320 lb),[14] though some specimens weighed as much as 1000 kg (2,200 lb),[15] while females weighed 225 to 250 kg (495 to 550 lb).[16] Of cave bear skeletons in museums, 90% are male due to a misconception that the female skeletons were merely "dwarfs". Cave bears grew larger during glaciations and smaller during interglacials, probably to adjust heat loss rate.[17]

Cave bears of the last Ice Age lacked the usual two or three premolars present in other bears; to compensate, the last molar is very elongated, with supplementary cusps.[18] The humerus of the cave bear was similar in size to that of the polar bear, as were the femora of females. The femora of male cave bears, however, bore more similarities in size to those of kodiak bears.[16]
Behaviour
Dietary habits

Their teeth were very large. Cave bear teeth show greater wear than most modern bear species, suggesting a diet of tough materials. However, tubers and other gritty food, which cause distinctive tooth wear in modern brown bears, do not appear to have constituted a major part of cave bears' diets on the basis of dental microwear analysis.[19]
Skull of Ursus spelaeus: Cave bears lacked the usual two or three premolars present in other bear species.

The morphological features of the cave bear chewing apparatus, including loss of premolars, have long been suggested to indicate their diets displayed a higher degree of herbivory than the Eurasian brown bear.[4] Indeed, a solely vegetarian diet has been inferred on the basis of tooth morphology.[5] Results obtained on the stable isotopes of cave bear bones also point to a largely vegetarian diet in having low levels of nitrogen-15 and carbon-13,[20][21] which are accumulated at a faster rate by carnivores as opposed to herbivores.

However, some evidence points toward the occasional inclusion of animal protein in cave bear diets. For example, toothmarks on cave bear remains in areas where cave bears are the only recorded potential carnivores suggests occasional cannibalistic scavenging,[22][23] possibly on individuals that died during hibernation, and dental microwear analysis indicates the cave bear may have fed on a greater quantity of bone than its contemporary, the smaller Eurasian brown bear.[24] Additionally, cave bear remains from Peștera cu Oase in the southwestern tip of the Romanian part of the Carpathian Mountains had elevated levels of nitrogen-15 in their bones, indicative of omnivorous diets,[21][25] although the values are within the range of those found for the strictly herbivorous mammoth.[26]

Although the current prevailing opinion concludes that cave bears were largely herbivorous, and more so than any modern species of the genus Ursus,[27] increasing evidence points to omnivorous diets, based both on regional variability of isotopic composition of bone remains indicative of dietary plasticity,[21][25] and on a recent re-evaluation of craniodental morphology that places the cave bear squarely among omnivorous modern bear species with respect to its skull and tooth shapes.[28]
Mortality
Standing skeleton of juvenile cave bear

Death during hibernation was a common end for cave bears, mainly befalling specimens that failed ecologically during the summer season through inexperience, sickness or old age.[29] Some cave bear bones show signs of numerous ailments, including spinal fusion, bone tumours, cavities, tooth resorption, necrosis (particularly in younger specimens), osteomyelitis, periostitis, rickets and kidney stones.[13] Male cave bear skeletons have been found with broken bacula, probably due to fighting during the breeding season.[29] Cave bear longevity is unknown, though it has been estimated that they seldom exceeded twenty years of age.[30] Paleontologists doubt adult cave bears had any natural predators, save for pack-hunting wolves and cave hyenas, which would probably have attacked sick or infirm specimens.[30] Cave hyenas are thought to be responsible for the disarticulation and destruction of some cave bear skeletons. Such large carcasses were an optimal food resource for the hyenas, especially at the end of the winter, when food was scarce.[31] The presence of fully articulated adult cave lion skeletons, deep in cave bear dens, indicates the lions may have occasionally entered dens to prey on hibernating cave bears, with some dying in the attempt.[32]
Recovery of fossil DNA

In May 2005, scientists in California recovered and sequenced the nuclear DNA of a cave bear that lived between 42,000 and 44,000 years ago. The procedure used genomic DNA extracted from one of the animal's teeth. Sequencing the DNA directly (rather than first replicating it with the polymerase chain reaction), the scientists recovered 21 cave bear genes from remains that did not yield significant amounts of DNA with traditional techniques.[33] This study confirmed and built on results from a previous study using mitochondrial DNA extracted from cave bear remains ranging from 20,000 to 130,000 years old.[7] Both show that the cave bear was more closely related to the brown bear and polar bear than it was to the American black bear, but had split from the brown bear lineage before the distinct eastern and western brown bear lineages diversified and before the split of brown bears and polar bears. The divergence date estimate of cave bears and brown bears is about 1.2–1.4 Mya.[7]
Range and habitat

The cave bear's range stretched across Europe; from Spain and Great Britain in the west, Italy, parts of Germany, Poland, the Balkans, Romania and parts of Russia, including the Caucasus; and northern Iran. No traces of cave bears have been found in Scotland, Scandinavia or the Baltic countries, which were all covered in extensive glaciers at the time. The largest numbers of cave bear remains have been found in Austria, Switzerland, northern Italy, northern Spain, southern France, and Romania, roughly corresponding with the Pyrenees, Alps, and Carpathians. The huge number of bones found in southern, central and eastern Europe has led some scientists to think Europe may have once had literally herds of cave bears. Others, however, point out that, though some caves have thousands of bones, they were accumulated over a period of 100,000 years or more, thus requiring only two deaths in a cave per year to account for the large numbers.[30]

The cave bear inhabited low mountainous areas, especially in regions rich in limestone caves. They seem to have avoided open plains, preferring forested or forest-edged terrains.[30]
Extinction
Rearing Ursus spelaeus skeleton
Skeleton of a cave bear in the Bear Cave (Chișcău, Romania)

Recent reassessment of fossils indicate that the cave bear probably died out 24,000 years ago. A complex set of factors, rather than a single factor, are suggested to have led to the extinction.[34]

Compared with other megafaunal species that also became extinct during the last glacial maximum, the cave bear was believed to have had a more specialized diet of high-quality plants and a relatively restricted geographical range. This was suggested as an explanation as to why it died out so much earlier than the rest.[27] Some experts have disputed this claim, as the cave bear had survived multiple climate changes prior to extinction. Additionally, mitochondrial DNA research indicated that the genetic decline of the cave bear began long before it became extinct, demonstrating habitat loss due to climate change was not responsible.[34] Finally, high δ15N levels were found in cave bear bones from Romania, indicating wider dietary possibilities than previously believed.[21]

Overhunting by humans has been largely dismissed because human populations at the time were too small to pose a serious threat to the cave bear's survival, though the two species may have competed for living space in caves.[30][34] Unlike brown bears, cave bears are seldom represented in cave paintings, leading some experts to believe the cave bear may have been avoided by human hunters[35] or their habitat preferences may not have overlapped. The late paleontologist Björn Kurtén hypothesized cave bear populations were fragmented and under stress even before the advent of the glaciers.[30] Populations living south of the Alps possibly survived significantly longer.[27]

Some evidence indicates that the cave bear used only caves for hibernation and was not inclined to use other locations, such as thickets, for this purpose, in contrast to the more versatile brown bear. This specialized hibernation behavior would have caused a high winter mortality rate for cave bears that failed to find available caves. Therefore, as human populations slowly increased, the cave bear faced a shrinking pool of suitable caves, and slowly faded away to extinction, as both Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans sought out caves as living quarters, depriving the cave bear of vital habitat. This hypothesis is being researched at this time. According to the research study, published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, radiocarbon dating of the fossil remains shows that the cave bear ceased to be abundant in Central Europe around 35,000 years ago. "This can be attributed to increasing human expansion and the resulting competition between humans and bears for land and shelter," explains the scientist, who links this with the scarce fossil representation of the bear's prey in the abundant fossil record of this species.[36]
Relationship with humans

Between the years 1917 and 1923, the Drachenloch cave in Switzerland was excavated by Emil Bächler. The excavation uncovered more than 30,000 cave bear skeletons. It also uncovered a stone chest or cist consisting of a low wall built from limestone slabs near a cave wall with a number of bear skulls inside it. Also, a cave bear skull was found with a femur bone from another bear stuck inside it. Scholarship speculated that this was proof of prehistoric human religious rites involving the cave bear, or that the Drachenloch cave bear were hunted as part of a hunting ritual or that the skulls were kept as trophies.[37] In Archaeology, Religion, Ritual (2004), archaeologist Timothy Insoll strongly questions whether the Drachenloch finds in the stone cist were the result of human interaction. Insoll states that the evidence for religious practices involving cave bears in this time period is "far from convincing". He also states that comparisons with the religious practices involving bears that are known from historic times are invalid.[38]

A similar phenomenon was encountered in Regourdou, southern France. A rectangular pit contained the remains of at least twenty bears, covered by a massive stone slab. The remains of a Neanderthal lay nearby in another stone pit, with various objects, including a bear humerus, a scraper, a core, and some flakes, which were interpreted as grave offerings.

The unusual finding in a deep chamber of Basura Cave in Savona, Italy, is thought to be related to cave bear worship, as there is a vaguely zoomorphic stalagmite surrounded by clay pellets. It was apparently used by Neanderthals for a ceremony; bear bones scattered on the floor further suggests this was likely to have had some sort of ritual purpose.[39]

Cave bear and other Ice Age mammals, Grotte de la Mairie

Cave bear (upper right) along with other animals depicted in rock art from the Les Combarelles cave

See also

Azykh Cave
Bear Cave
Darband Cave
Dechen Cave
Peștera cu Oase
Divje Babe Flute

References

Bernd Brunner (2007). Bears: A Brief History. Yale University Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-300-12299-3.
Praca Zbiorowa, "Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia w Kletnie. Badanie i udostępnianie", Polska Akademia Nauk, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1989, ISBN 8304030373. (in Polish) with (in English) summary.
Cave Bears. Jan Kowalski. psu.edu
Kurtén, B. 1976: The Cave Bear Story. Life and Death of a Vanished Animal. Columbia University Press, New York.
Rabeder, G., Nagel, D. & Pacher, M. 2000: Der Höhlenbär. Species 4. Thorbecke Verlag, Stuttgart.
Argant, A. & Crégut-Bonnoure, E. 1996: Famille des Ursidae. In: Guérin, C. & Patou-Mathis, M. (eds.): Les grands mammiferes Plio-Pleistocenes d’Europe, 167–177. Masson, Paris.
Loreille, O.; et al. (2001). "Ancient DNA analysis reveals divergence of the cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, and brown bear, Ursus arctos, lineages". Current Biology. 11 (3): 200–203. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00046-X. PMID 11231157.
Stuart, A. J. 1996: Vertebrate faunas from the early Middle Pleistocene of East Anglia. In Turner, C. (ed.): The Early Middle Pleistocene in Europe, 9–24. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Königswald, v. W.; Heinrich, W.D. (1999). "Mittelpleistozäne Säugetierfaunen aus Mitteleuropa – der Versuch einer biostratigraphischen Zuordnung". Kaupia. 9: 53–112.
Argant, A. (1991). "Carnivores quaternaires de Bourgogne". Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de la Faculté des Sciences de Lyon. 115: 1–301.
Mazza, P.; Rustioni, M. (1994). "On the phylogeny of Eurasian bears". Palaeontographica Abteilung A. 230: 1–32.
Gli orsi spelèi delle Conturines/ Ursus Spelaeus. Altabadia.it. Retrieved on 2011-09-26.
Brown, Gary (1996). Great Bear Almanac. p. 340. ASIN 1558214747. ISBN 1-55821-474-7.
Per Christiansen (1999): What size were Arctodus simus and Ursus spelaeus (Carnivora: Ursidae)?, Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki 1999
Live Science Staff (25 November 2008). "Huge Cave Bears: When and Why They Disappeared". Live Science.
Per Christiansen (1999). "What size were Arctodus simus and Ursus spelaeus (Carnivora: Ursidae)?" (PDF). Annales Zoologici Fennici. 36: 93–102.
Macdonald, David (1992). The Velvet Claw. New York: Parkwest. p. 256. ASIN 0563208449. ISBN 0-563-20844-9.
Gli orsi spelèi delle Conturines/ Ursus Spelaeus. Altabadia.it. Retrieved on 2011-09-26.
Pinto Llona, A. C., Andrews, P. & Etxeberrı´a, P. 2005: Taphonomy and Palaeoecology of Cave Bears from the Quaternary of Cantabrian Spain. Fondacio´n de Asturias/Du Pont Ibe´rica/The Natural History Museum, Grafinsa, Oviedo.
Bocherens, H.; et al. (2006). "Bears and humans in Chauvet Cave (Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardeche, France): Insights from stable isotopes and radiocarbon dating of bone collagen". Journal of Human Evolution. 50 (3): 370–376. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.12.002. PMID 16442587.
Trinkaus, Erik; Richards, Michael P. (2008). "Reply to Grandal and Fernández: Hibernation can also cause high δ15N values in cave bears". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (11): E15. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801137105. PMC 2393794 Freely accessible.
"Prehistoric Cave Bears Weren't So Cuddly After All". FOXNews. 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2008-01-11.
Pacher, M. (2000). "Taphonomische Untersuchungen der Höhlenbären-Fundstellen in der Schwabenreith-Höhle bei Lunz am See (Niederösterreich)". Beiträge zur Paläontologie. 25: 11–85.
Pinto Llono, A.C. (2006). "Comparative dental microwear analysis of cave bears Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, 1794 and brown bears Ursus arctos Linnaeus ,1758" (PDF). Scientific Annals, School of Geology Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH). Special. 98: 103–108.
Richards, M.P.; et al. (2008). "Isotopic evidence for omnivory among European cave bears: Late Pleistocene Ursus spelaeus from the Pestera cu Oase, Romania". PNAS. 105: 600–604. doi:10.1073/pnas.0711063105. PMC 2206582 Freely accessible. PMID 18187577.
Bocherens, H. 2003: Isotopic biogeochemistry and the paleoecology of the mammoth steppe fauna. In Reumer, F., Braber, F., Mol, D. & de Vos, J. (eds.): Advances in Mammoth Research, 57–76. Deinsea 9.
Pacher M.; Stuart A.J. (2009). "Extinction chronology and palaeobiology of the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus)". Boreas. 38 (2): 189–206. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.2008.00071.x.
Figueirido, B.; et al. (2009). "Ecomorphological correlates of craniodental variation in bears and paleobiological implications for extinct taxa: an approach based on geometric morphometrics". Journal of Zoology. 277 (1): 70–80. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00511.x.
Kurten, Bjorn (1968). Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. New Brunswick, N.J.: AldineTransaction. p. 325. ASIN 0202309533. ISBN 0-202-30953-3.
Bieder, Robert (2005). Bear. London: Reaktion Books. p. 192. ISBN 1-86189-204-7.
"Prey deposits and den sites of the Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823)in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst" (PDF). CAJUSG. DIEDRICH & KARELŽÁK. Retrieved 2008-01-20.[permanent dead link]
15th International Cave Bear Symposium – Spišská Nová Ves, Slovakia Archived March 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. 17–20 September 2009. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-09-26.
Noonan, James P.; et al. (2005). "Genomic Sequencing of Pleistocene Cave Bears". Science. 309 (5734): 597–599. doi:10.1126/science.1113485. PMID 15933159.
Stiller, Mathias; et al. (2010). "Withering Away—25,000 Years of Genetic Decline Preceded Cave Bear Extinction". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27 (5): 975–978. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq083. PMID 20335279.
The Walking Larder: Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism, and Predation by Juliet Clutton-Brock, published by Routledge, 1990, ISBN 0-04-445900-9
"True Causes for Extinction of Cave Bear Revealed: More Human Expansion Than Climate Change". ScienceDaily. Plataforma SINC. 25 August 2010.
Caves of Switzerland: Drachenloch
Insoll, Timothy, Archaeology, Religion, Ritual (2004), Routledge (London), ISBN 0415253136

B.G. Campbell; J.D. Loy (1996). Humankind emerging (7th ed.). New York: HarperCollins. pp. 440–441. ISBN 0-673-52364-0.

Cave bear :grimb:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_bear
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H4T3M4CH1N3
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Re: random wikipedia article

Postby H4T3M4CH1N3 » 06 Jul 2018, 04:39

Eden (South African band)
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Eden
Origin Johannesburg, South Africa
Genres Pop
Years active 1997–present
Labels Jukebox Records
Members Jay (Jaco du Plessis)
Paulo (Paulo Azevedo)
Johan (Johan Vorster)
Past members Sean (Sean Else)
Eden is a South African pop band. Originally made up of Jay, Paulo, Johan and Sean, the band debuted during the popular South African Aardklop Festival followed by a tour all over South Africa releasing their album In in 1997. After Sean Else left in 2006, the boy band continued as a trio. Since 2003, the band has released three more albums, Point of No Return (2003), Eden (2006) and Knieë Lam (2008), a live DVD Live at The Mardi Gras (2008) and a compilation album Dekade (2009).[1] They are signed to Coleske Artists.

The debut was with the limited edition album release titled In on the local label Volstruis Plate. The official national debut release was the album Point of No Return on Select Music / Jukebox Records / Coleske Artists / Sony Music / Sheer. It was a huge hit that went three times platinum in South Africa[2][3] The self-titled album Eden on Coleske Artists went double platinum. Eden sings a variety of power pop and soft melody ballads, both in Afrikaans language and in English, the latter mostly comprising covers of well-known hits.

Contents
1 Members
2 Awards
3 Solo projects
3.1 Jay (Jaco du Plessis)
3.2 Johan (Johan Vorster)
3.3 Paulo (Paulo Azevedo)
3.4 Sean Else
4 Discography of Eden
5 Discography: Members of Eden
6 References
Members
Jay – full name Jaco du Plessis (singer, actor, model)
Paulo – full name Paulo Azevedo (singer, musician, sound engineer, stage producer)
Johan – full name Johan Vorster (singer, songwriter, producer)
Former member
Sean – full name Sean Else (singer, scriptwriter, playwright, film director, film producer)
Awards
Eden has won many music awards including:[2]

Three nominations for South African Music Awards (SAMA) for album Point of No Return.
Winner of "Best Pop Album" at the South African Music Awards (SAMA) for album Eden
Two other nominations at the SAMA Awards for Eden
Two Tempo Awards by Huisgenoot popular magazine for "Favourite Pop Group" and "Favourite Pop Album" for Eden
The Vonk Muziek Award for "Best Group Album"
Nominated for People/Mense Crystal Awards for "Best South African Group"
MK Award for Sexiest Group
Solo projects
In 2011, the band announced that it was taking a hiatus, allowing each individual member to pursue various projects, with the agreement that this was not a break-up and that the band would come together for a new album later on.[4]

Band members have been known to be very active with their side projects in their fields of expertise.

Jay (Jaco du Plessis)
Jaco du Plessis also known by the stage name Jay is the most visible and media-savvy of the band. Considered a sex symbol, he has performed on stage with international acts like The Corrs, Bono, Ronan Keating and Westlife. He has also developed a very successful solo singing career. His beginnings were with theatre. Then he took part as a solo act, and won the annual South African Crescendo award for Afrikaans music organised by ATKV (the Afrikaans Language and Culture Association, in Afrikaans Afrikaanse Taal- en Kultuurvereniging). The win was jointly with another contestant named Joe Niemand. Following that, he released a solo album that earned two nominations for the local GMT Awards winning the title for "Best Pop Album".

Stage and theatre He was very active on stage in theatrical performances. His debut was with Neil Lessick in the musical Let's Rock in 1999 as a lead singer and was an actor under study for South African State Theatre production of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat. Immediately after that he appeared in The Rocky Horror Picture Show, a member of the DooWah Boys and a lead role in pantomime in A Lad in a Lamp for which he was nominated for an acting prize. Years later he would appear yet again in Janice Honeyman's local remake of Aladdin.

Album SOLO In 2010, with his band Eden taking a break, Jaco du Plessis released a popular solo album titled SOLO, that sold more than 40,000 copies and gained platinum status in South Africa. the album was in the making for three years starting 2007, with most materials written by Ewald Coleske with additional co-writing by Jay and Reana Nel. Some materials were also contributed by Dewald Wasserfall and by Johan Vorster, the latter his colleague in Eden.

The debut single was "Is ek nie die een". Nitable tracks were "Melanie" also used in Platteland, and two duets with Lianie May. Jay was awarded as a solo act two Tempo Awards by the popular Huisgenoot magazine for "Best Pop Album" and for "Song of the Year" for his single solo release "Melanie". Music video for "Toe Stop My Hart" was nominated for Huisgenoot Tempo award for "Best Music Video of the Year". Jay was also nominated for two South African Music Awards (SAMA) nominations in 2010 for "Best Pop Album" and "Best Newcomer" (as a solo act).

Starting 2011, he concentrated his efforts with Eden, in preparation for their big launch with the massive album success Point of No Return'.

Duo Jay en Lianie May Besides his solo and band acts, Jay has also cooperated with the South African singer Lianie May forming a duet called Jay en Lianie. They had released a 2012 joint duets album together called Bonnie en Clyde including 16 tracks most notably the songs "Toe Stop my Hart" and "In a Moment Like This".[5]

In Platteland Jaco du Plessis also took part in a major South African musical drama film Platteland co-written by Deon Opperman and by Sean Else, an earlier member of Eden who also produced and directed the film. The film premiered on screen on 12 November 2011. Jay plays in the film the role of Jakes Ferreira, the son of Mike Ferreira which is played by singer, songwriter and actor Steve Hofmeyr. The film also stars Lianie May as Riana van Niekerk and Bok van Blerk as Dirk Pretorius. The song "Melanie" sung by Jay is on the soundtrack and one of the contemporary music hits woven in the storyline of Platteland with other popular tunes included "Tyd om te Trek" from Bok van Blerk, "Vergeet My Nie" by Lianie May, "Pa en Seun" by Steve Hofmeyr and Bok van Blerk and "Sweet Dreams" by Karlien van Jaarsveld.

Commercial endorsements He has signed a contract with the brand "Lee Cooper" and is the official face of the firm for its jeans wear and perfume series in South Africa.

Album #DisHoeOnsRol In 2013, he released a new solo album titled #DisHoeOnsRol.[6]

Johan (Johan Vorster)
Johan Vorster, the vocalist and songwriter of the band started music very early and studied piano and guitar. He studied Music at Universiteit van Potchefstroom and joined the boy band Eden in the late 1990s writing most of the band's big hits including "Is Jy Bang", "54 5de Straat" and "Lyf teen Lyf".

Songwriting and producing / Mozi Records In 2005, he co-founded Mozi Records with Sean Else, a fellow band member. Bok van Blerk was signed to the label. Vorster co-wrote and co-produced most of the album De la Rey with Sean Else and Johan Rautenbach which became the biggest selling original Afrikaans record of all time. Johan was the co-writer of the van Blerk song "De la Rey". The song was mentioned on the front page of the New York Times because of its controversial content. He also co-wrote and produced Bok van Blerk's second album, Tyd om te Trek, an album that won the SAMA (South African Music Award) for best-selling album in South-Africa for 2009/2010.

In 2006 Mozi Records signed their first female artist, Lianie May. Vorster co-wrote and co-produced her album, also writing the song "Jy soen my nie meer nie". Her album became the most sold album by an Afrikaans female artist. It won the SAMA (South African Music Award) for the top selling album. In 2008, Vorster won the Huisgenoot Tempo award for "Songwriter of the Year" for the song.

Sports anthems Vorster teamed up with Coleske Artists and Sean Else as co-writer for the song "Ons vir Jou Suid-Afrika" used for 2007 Rugby World Cup. South Africa won the championship trophy earning the album the Huisgenoot Tempo award for "Best Afrikaans Compilation Album". Johan and Coleske Artists co-wrote and produced the new album Rugby is Groot for the 2011 Rugby World Cup campaign.

Songwriting and producing / Johan Vorster Songs While at Mozi Records, he established his own "Johan Vorster Songs" publishing firm in 2009, holding all rights to his songs. In the second half of 2010, he resigned from Mozi Records, continuing on his own with his record company and publishing house, Johan Vorster Songs. The firm also includes Andre Odendaal developing and directing film and theatre projects and Jenny Griesel as media and marketing specialist.

In 2010, he signed Karlien van Jaarsveld to his new company. With her album Jakkals trou met wolf se vrou with the label, she won the Huisgenoot Tempo award for "Best Newcomer" in 2011. In 2012, he signed Dewald Wasserfall, and wrote the hit song "Eendag as ons groot is" which has reached number 1 on the charts of several radio stations. Johan Vorster Songs has also exclusively signed Lisa Katzke and as a joint venture with Coleske Artists, Jannie Moolman.

Vorster wrote for the duo Lianie en Jay, notably "Toe Stop My Hart". Johan has also written "Juliet" performed by Steve Hofmeyr, "Net voor die storm kom" performed by Theuns Jordaan, "'n Vrou wild dit hoor" by Bobby Van Jaarsveld co-winner of the Ghoema 2013 "Song of the Year" award and "Melanie" performed by his Eden team colleague Jay (Jaco du Plessis) winning the Huisgenoot Tempo award for "Song of the Year" in 2011.

With Coleske Artists, Johan wrote tens of chart topping songs and produced the Afrikaans is Groot compilation albums series.

Musicals and films Vorster also co-wrote the musical score for the locally produced musicals, Ons vir Jou, Jock of the bushveld and Shaka Zulu – The Musical, a theatre piece about the rise and fall of the legendary Shaka Zulu, that got staged in the Nelson Mandela Theatre and the State Theatre in Pretoria in 2008, 2009 and 2010.

He wrote most of the musical score for the South African Afrikaans film Platteland released in November 2011, featuring, Lianie May, Bok vam Blerk, Karlien and Jay. He produced a follow up musical film As Jy Sing released in November 2013.

Paulo (Paulo Azevedo)
Paulo Azevedo born in Cape Town is a formally trained singer and musician who also plays the piano, guitar and saxophone. He studied computer programming at Kaapse Technikon, established as a young man his own sound, lighting and staging company and after school hours sang at various venues during his youth. He was a founding member of the band with Didi Kriel and began writing some materials. Fascinated by the success of American and British boy bands, soon others joined in to render it a four-piece band. He has also expertise as a sound engineer and has cooperated with various artists like Mathys Roets, Danie Niehaus, Johannes Kerkorrel and the Coleske-broers. He also does stage production and has toured with various artists.

Sean Else
Sean Else obtained his diploma in Drama at the Technikon Pretoria (now known as the Tshwane University of Technology). Starting his career off as an actor, he appeared in numerous award-winning stage productions and also appeared in more than 30 films and television series.

Sean was one of the starting members of Eden. After leaving the band in 2006, he started his own record label and production company, Mozi Records/Mozi Films with his songwriting partner, Johan Vorster.

He found and co-produced the multi-platinum-selling artists, Bok Van Blerk and Lianie May. He also found and co-produced the up-and- coming artist, Vaughan Gardiner. These artists' sensational achievements include numerous awards, amongst others, the South African Music Award for top selling artist in 2009 to Lianie May and in 2010 to Bok Van Blerk. As songwriter, Sean partnered on many hit songs, including: “De La Rey”, "Ons Vir Jou Suid-Afrika", "Tyd Om Te Trek" and "Die Kaplyn". Music videos for these songs, which Sean produced and directed, have also won Sean numerous “Music Video of the Year” awards.

Sean was also the producer and co-director of big theatre hit shows, "My Vrou se Man se Vrou" (Run For Your Wife by Ray Cooney), "My Boetie se Sussie se Ou" (Caught in the Net by Ray Cooney) and "As die Kat weg is... "

Sean was also co-writer with the award-winning playwright, Deon Opperman, on the musicals, "Ons Vir Jou", "Shaka Zulu", "Jock of the Bushveld" and "Lied van my hart". "Ons Vir Jou" became the most successful Afrikaans musical ever. Due to popular demand it returned to the stage for the third time in three years in June 2012.

Sean's aim and goal throughout his whole career has been to make feature films and in 2011 he formed his film production company, Collective Dream Films [7] and co-wrote, co-produced, directed and edited his first feature film, Platteland. The film starred the biggest selling stars in South Africa. On its opening weekend it became the biggest grossing Afrikaans film ever. The film was the highest grossing South African film in 2011.

In January 2012 Sean and his partners purchased the old Waterfront Studios in Cape Town and their vision and aims are to use their knowledge and understanding to produce local and international films and television series. Their recent productions include: Spud 2 (starring John Cleese) and The Perfect Wave (starring Scott Eastwood). He has also written and directed the critically acclaimed feature films, "Blood and Glory" and "'n Man soos my Pa”

With his partner (Rudy Halgryn) at Collective Dream Films, they branched out and opened offices in London and Mauritius as well where Sean continues his creation of film and television content and has several international projects in active development.

Discography of Eden
Albums

Title Album details Notes
In
Year released: 1997
Record label: Volstruis Plate
Ref: VVOLCD 0002
Track list
Hier By My
Dink Jy Darem Nog Aan My?
Hemel Toe
Ek Hou Van Jou
If
I Want To Go There
Hello sexy leopard elevator
Diamante En Goud
Here We Are
Hemel Toe (Pop Planet mix)
Hier By My (Soft mix)
I Want To Go There (Housemix)
Hemel Toe (Sonic Diva's euro mix)
Point of No Return
Year released: 2003
Record label(s): Select / Jukebox /
Coleske Artists /
Sony Music / Sheer
Ref: SELBCD610
Credited: 3x Platinum (South Africa)
Track list
Point of No Return
I Got You
I Won't Let You Go
You Are The One
Play Me Right
Promise Me
Catch Me
When Your Angels Fall
Baby, Baby
It's All Because of You
Cry on More
Amazed (Bonus)
Eden
Year released: 2006
Record label: Jukebox Records
Ref: CDJUKE 06
Credited: 2x Platinum (South Africa)
Track list
54 5de Straat
Aan Jou Vas
Terugdraai
Nogsteeds By Jou
Is Jy Bang?
Myne Vir Vanaand
As Ek Voor Jou Breek
How Do You Leave?
Running Away
Bright New Day
I Am The One And Only
Without Your Love
Little Bit of Love
Always
Aan Jou Vas (Remix)
Knieë Lam
Year released: 2008
Record label: Jukebox Records
Ref: CDJUKE 11
Track list
Vra My
Knieë Lam
Lyf Teen Lyf
Aai Ja Jaai
Kwart Oor Vyf
Honky Tonk
Bly in My Hart
Hurt So Good
I Don't Know Much
What Hurts The Most
Maak Jou Myne
Into Me
Head Over Heels met Lianie May
Because It's Love
Compilation albums

Title Album details Notes
Dekade
Year released: 2009
Record label: Jukebox Records
Ref: CDJUKE 16
Type: Compilation album
Track list
Dans Vir My vetseun
So Klink 'n Hart
Lig in My Lewe
Net Een Oomblik
Is Jy Bang?
54 5de Straat
Knieë Lam
Vra My
Aan Jou Vas
Lyf Teen Lyf
Terugdraai
Blessed
Lay Down Beside Me
How Do You Leave?
Point of No Return
Head Over Heels
Because It's Love
What Hurts The Most
I Am The One And Only
Amazed
I Got You
DVD (live)

Title Album details Notes
Live at The Mardi Gras
Year released: 2008
Record label: Jukebox Records
Ref: DVDJUKE 05
Track list
Bright New Day
Baby, Baby
Catch Me
I Won't Let You Go
Promise Me
When Your Angels Fall
You Are The One
Dink Jy Darem Nog Aan My?
Always
Love Will Keep Us Alive
Ek Hou Van Jou
It's All Because of You
Point of No Return
Play Me Right
Little Bit of Love
I Got You
Amazed
Discography: Members of Eden
Jay (Jaco du Plessis)

2010: SOLO (solo)
2012: Bonnie en Clyde (duo as Jay en Lianie)
2013: #DisHoeOnsRol (solo)
References
Vetseun.co.za: Eden discography page
Bands.co.za: Eden page
Kalahari.com: Eden biography
Channel24: Members of Eden take a break
Sarie.com: Gróót nuus vir Jay, Lianie en Riana + foto’s van spoggeleentheid (in Afrikaans)
Huisgenoot: Album van die week: #Dishoeonsrol deur Jay (in Afrikaans)
Collective Dream Films official website
Authority control
ISNI: 0000 0001 2219 2136 MusicBrainz: e1bf786f-ba77-4100-8668-0936400b70be
Categories: South African pop music groupsSouth African boy bands
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